The Luwaran, The Laws of Magindanao

Monday July 22, 2013 ()

First page of an original manuscript copy of the Luwaran   
First page of an original manuscript copy of the Luwaran   
The term Luwaran, which the Mindanao Moros apply to their code of law, means "selection" or "selected". The laws that are embodied in the Luwaran are selections from old Arabic law and were translated and compiled for the guidance and information of the Mindanao datus, judges, and pandita who do not understand Arabic. The Mindanao copies of the Luwaran give no dates at all, and nobody seems to know when this code was made. They say it was prepared by the Mindanao judges some time ago, but none of those judges is known by name. Datu Mastura’s copy of this code was written about 1886, and it is undoubtedly copied from some older manuscript. The original manuscript1 accompanying this code is older still, but it bears no date at all.

The Arabic books quoted in the Luwaran are Minhaju-l-Arifeen, Taqreebu-l-Intifa, Fathu-l-Qareeb, and Miratu-t-Tullab. The first of these, generally known as the Minhaj, is the chief authority quoted. Datu Utu had an old copy of the Minhaj that looked more than two hundred years old. The author of the Minhaj must have lived in the ninth or tenth century. The compilation of the Luwaran must have been made before the middle of the eighteenth century.

Each Mindanao datu is assisted in the administration of justice by a judge and a vizier. The judge is called Datu Kali. The word kali is derived from the Arabic word meaning "judge". The Datu Kali is the chief pandita of the district and is supposed to be the best-informed man of the community. The pandita is the scholar who can read and write and perform the functions of a priest. The vizier is called "wazir", he is a pandita too, and acts in a semijudicial and clerical capacity. Mohammedan law being based on the teachings of the Quran, the chief pandita of the district is naturally regarded as the most competent expounder of the law and the best-fitted person in the community to act as a judge. As the wazir is a pandita, he should be a well-informed and wise man. Some datus are pandita themselves, and some take all matters into their own hands and delegate none of their offices or duties to a judge or a vizier; but this is the exception, not the rule.

In making the Luwaran the Mindanao judges selected such laws as in their judgment suited the conditions and the requirements of order in Mindanao. They used the Arabic text as a basis, but constructed their articles in a concrete form, embodying genuine examples and incidents of common occurrence in Mindanao. In some places they modified the sense of the Arabic so much as to make it agree with the prevailing customs of their country. In a few instances they made new articles which do not exist in Arabic but which conform to the national customs and common practices. The authority of the Luwaran is universally accepted in Mindanao and is held sacred next to that of the Quran. The Mindanao judge is at liberty to use either of them as his authority for the sentence to be rendered, but as a rule a quotation from the Quran bearing on the subject is desirable.

All datus and viziers and all persons acting in the capacity of a chief or a vizier find the Luwaran very convenient and helpful. Very few people can become kali, but all who are able to read can study and use the Luwaran. Consequently the Luwaran has had general use, and copies of it are seen in all the districts that speak the Magindanao dialect. To establish this fact copies of it were secured from the ruling datus of Bagumbayan and of Saraya or the upper valley.

The copy secured from Datu Mastura is by far the most complete of all. The text is well written, neat, and distinct. The original Arabic articles are written separately on the margin of the book and opposite the Magindanao articles with which they were supposed to correspond. Datu Mastura is the best living descendant and representative of the house of Mindanao, and he probably owns the most reliable books and documents that have been transmitted from the previous generations.

This book is certainly the best specimen of Magindanao literature; it is genuine, correct, and well written. On account of inability to secure the book itself, an accurate and exact copy of the same was taken. The Magindanao articles are written separately and are numbered for convenience in reference. The translation is not exactly literal, but nearly so.

The Arabic marginal quotations are copied separately and are numbered in the order in which they appeared in the original copy. They are also translated, and a table indicating the Arabic quotation which corresponds to each article of the Luwaran is attached to the introduction to the translation.

In actual practice the Moros do not distinguish between custom and law. Many of their customs are given the force of law, and many laws are set aside on account of contradiction to the prevailing customs of the day.

Slavery is such an established custom and institution of the land that it is generally sanctioned and supported in the Luwaran.

An oath on the Quran is so firmly binding and the fear of perjury is so strong in the mind of the Moro that oaths are generally taken and are always regarded as sufficient confirmation even in the absence of evidence.

The Moros are not strict nor just in the execution of the law. The laws relating to murder, adultery, and inheritance are seldom strictly complied with. Indeed, the laws of inheritance as given in the Luwaran are generally disregarded and are seldom considered at all. Mohammedan law does not recognize classes, except the slave class. But Moro law is not applied equally to all classes. Great preference is shown the datu class, and little consideration is given to the children of concubines.

The Luwaran, nevertheless, is the recognized law of the land and compliance with it is a virtue.

Translation of the Luwaran, the Magindanao Code of Laws

In the name of God the Compassionate and Merciful, praise be to God, who led us to the faith and religion of Islam. May God’s blessing be with our master Mohammed and with all his people and followers.

The following articles are taken from the Minhaj and Fathu-l-Qareeb and Taqreebu-l-Intifa and Mir-atu-t-Tullab and have been translated from the Arabic into the Java (Malay) dialect of Mindanao, the land of peace, here presented in English:

Article I

If two people disagree as to the ownership of a certain property, the actual possessor has the right to the property if he swears to that effect. In case both of them are in actual possession of the property, both ought to swear. If both of them swear to that effect, the property shall be divided between them equally. If only one person swears, the property shall be given to that person alone.

Article II

If a person borrows an article and loses it, he shall replace it or pay its value. The same rule shall apply in case the article is stolen. There shall also be paid a reasonable additional compensation for the lost article.

Article III

If a person borrows an ax or a button, and the ax is broken or the button lost while being used for the purpose for which it was loaned, and not on account of carelessness, the lost article shall not be replaced. But if the ax is used at a place overhanging the water or is used to cut a stock of bamboo without being well tied or fastened, and is lost, it shall then be replaced.

Article IV

If two persons disagree as to whether or not a certain debt has been paid and have no witness to the fact, the plaintiff’s claim shall be sustained in case he confirms it by an oath. In case he refuses to take an oath the defendant’s claim shall be sustained.

Article V

If a person intrusts another with his property and later calls for it and it is denied him on the plea that it has been taken back or that it was lost, and no witness can be obtained, the trustee’s plea shall be sustained if he confirms it by oath.

Article VI

If a person enters a claim to his lost property which has been found and kept by another person, and the finder refuses to deliver the property on the plea that it is his own property and that it has been in his possession for a long time, and there be a witness who testifies that the property is a find and not an old possession of the finder, the finder shall return the property found and pay a compensation of one cuspidor or two.

Article VII

The seizer of another’s property shall return the seized property and pay an additional amount proportional to the interest derived from the property.

Article VIII

If a person enters the house of another at night without the consent of the owner thereof, and the said owner complains of the offense, the defendant shall be fined four cuspidors.

Article IX

If a man enters the house of another with the intention of holding private intercourse with a woman therein with whom it is unlawful for him to associate privately, and the woman objects, he shall be fined four cuspidors or four pesos, or shall suffer from twenty to thirty-nine lashes, or shall be slapped on his face, at the discretion of the judge.

Article X

If a woman comes into the house of a man with the intention of marrying him and of living with him, and the man refuses to marry her and she is later taken away by her people, the man shall not be liable to fine or punishment.

Article XI

Section 1. If a man divorces his wife after the conclusion of the marriage act or ceremonies, and before any sexual intercourse has taken place, the woman shall have half of the dower only. If the divorce occurs after sexual intercourse has taken place, the woman shall have all the dower.

Section 2. If a man refuses to marry a woman after having been engaged to her, the whole dower shall be returned to him, excepting the expenses for the feast incurred by the father of the woman.

Article XII

If a person curses or abuses another person without cause, he shall be fined not more than three cuspidors.

Article XIII

Section 1. If a person falsely claims another person as his slave, he shall be fined the value of one slave.

Section 2. If a person defames another person by calling him balbal (a human being who transforms at night into an evil spirit which devours dead people) or poisoner, he shall be fined one slave or the value of one slave. Article XIV

If both the giver and the receiver understand that a return gift shall be made for a certain given property and the receiver fails to make the gift, the giver can take back the gift.

Article XV

No gift given without expectation of reward can be recovered after the receiver has had possession of it. But if the giver changes his mind before the receiver takes possession of the gift, the giver resumes his ownership of the given property.

Article XVI

Property the gift of parents to their child shall be recoverable if it has not been expended or destroyed.

Article XVII

In the discretion of the judge and the datu, a thief of property amounting to the value of one malong or more shall have his hand cut off and shall return the stolen property. If the stolen property does not amount to the value of one malong, the thief shall suffer thirty-nine lashes or pay a fine of four cuspidors.

Article XVIII

If there is any doubt of the truth of evidence or the truthfulness of a witness, they shall be confirmed by oath.

Article XIX

Testimony of a slave which is detrimental to himself shall be accepted.

Article XX

Testimony of children and of the insane or imbecile shall be held invalid.

Article XXI

If a person enters a house without permission and in the absence of the owner, he shall be held responsible for and shall restore or pay for any article that may be found missing from said house. A person who enters the field of another shall likewise be held responsible for and shall restore or pay for any article that may be found missing from said field.

Article XXII

If a person loans or sells to a slave without the knowledge or consent of the master of the slave, the person who loans or sells shall be guilty of a misdemeanor; and the master of the slave shall not be held responsible for the transaction of his slave.

Article XXIII

If in the course of an agreement for the sale of property questions arise respecting the price or the amount of the sold property, and no witness can be obtained, the seller shall be sustained if he confirms his statement by oath; but the statement of the buyer shall be sustained if the seller fails to take oath.

Article XXIV

If the seller and the buyer differ as to whether a certain defect in the purchased property developed prior to or later than the date of the purchase, the seller’s statement shall be sustained if he confirms it by oath; otherwise the buyer’s statement shall be sustained.

Article XXV

If after the purchase of property the buyer discovers a defect in the property which existed prior to the sale or purchase, he may return the property to the seller and pay him a reasonable compensation proportional to the decrease occasioned in the value of the property through the detection of the defect; and the buyer shall then recover the purchase price of the property.

Article XXVI

No purchased property shall be returnable to the seller on account of a defect therein which has developed after the sale.

Article XXVII

If a person buys a slave and later discovers a defect in him and returns him to the seller, but the seller denies the slave’s identity, the statement of the seller shall be sustained if he confirms it by oath; otherwise the statement of the buyer shall be sustained. Similar cases pertaining to other kinds of property shall be judged similarly.

Article XXVIII

It shall be lawful to return promptly purchased property which is defective. The return shall not be delayed longer than prayer time or mealtime, or one night in event of the purchase having been made in the evening.

Article XXIX

If a creditor dies and his heirs sue his debtor, but the debtor denies the debt on the plea that the deceased creditor gave him as a gift, or in charity, or that he has paid for that for which he is sued, and there is no witness, the heir must swear. Failure to swear on the part of the heir shall render the debtor free from payment of the debt.

Article XXX

If a person buys property or a slave, and another person recognizes the slave or property as his own and lays claim thereto, and is able to produce a witness to that effect, the buyer shall return the purchased property or the slave to the seller, but shall recover whatever he has paid.

Article XXXI

If a person finds his property in the possession of another, and is able to recover it without any injury or injustice, he shall be justified in so doing. But in the event of an objection being raised to the recovery or in case an injury or injustice is unavoidable in recovering the property, he shall present the matter to the datu and to the judge, after which it shall be justifiable for him to take his property even though it be necessary to break through a door or through walls to do so. Under any circumstances he shall have the right to recover his property, or its equivalent in kind, or any other substitute not in excess of the value of the property.

Article XXXII

If, while a person is spying on the house of another, the occupants throw a stone or other thing out of the house and thereby cause the death of the spy, no guilt shall be attached to their action.

Article XXXIII

If the provisions or the fowls of a person are eaten by cats or cattle, and the owners thereof are notified by the injured person to secure their animal or animals, and the warning or notice is disregarded so that the provisions or fowls are eaten up, the owners of the cats or cattle shall be held responsible for the loss.

Article XXXIV

Section 1. If a person seduces or cohabits with a female slave, held by him as security for debt, with the knowledge or consent of the debtor, he shall not be held guilty; but he shall give her a dower.

Section 2. If the seduction or cohabitation occurs without the consent of the debtor, the creditor shall be liable to a fine, or shall give the woman a dower to be paid to the debtor.

Section 3. If the creditor begets a child of the slave held as security in the preceding section, he shall buy the child from the debtor; otherwise the child shall become the slave of the debtor.

Article XXXV

If the creditor and the debtor differ as to the security or its amount, the debtor’s statement shall be sustained if confirmed by oath; otherwise the statement of the creditor shall be sustained.

Article XXXVI

If the security is lost and no blame is attached to the creditor, he shall not be held responsible for the loss, and the debtor shall not be relieved from his debt.

Article XXXVII

If a principal and his agent differ, and the agent claims that he has acted in accordance with the orders of his principal, and the claim be denied by the principal, the statement of the latter shall be sustained if confirmed by oath.

Article XXXVIII

If a married woman commits adultery, both adulterer and adulteress shall suffer eighty lashes. If the lashes are changed or reduced to a fine, half the number of the woman’s lashes shall be added to the man’s fine.

Article XXXIX

If a person charges another with the payment of his debt, and the creditor sues the proxy for the unpaid debt, but the proxy claims to have paid the same, the creditor’s statement shall be sustained if confirmed by oath.

Article XL

If a man seduces a maiden, both shall suffer one hundred lashes, and the man shall marry the woman and live with her even though he is married.

Article XLI

The statement of the plaintiff shall be sustained if confirmed by a witness. If there is no witness, the defendant shall take an oath.

Article XLII

If slaves commit adultery, both man and woman shall suffer fifty lashes.

Article XLIII

If a married man commits adultery with a free woman, both shall be stoned to death. The punishment of the man may be reduced to imprisonment. The woman shall be buried up to her chest and be stoned with medium-sized stones.

Article XLIV

If a free man seduces a maiden slave, the property of another person, and she becomes pregnant and dies during childbirth, the seducer shall then pay the value of the slave to her owner.

Article XLV

If a bachelor or widower commits adultery and is killed by a non-Mohammedan, the non-Mohammedan shall be put to death. But a Mohammedan who may kill such an adulterer shall not be put to death.

Article XLVI

If a man recognizes his cattle or his trees in another’s charge and notifies him of the fact, and has a witness to confirm his statement that the cattle or trees are his, he shall be entitled to the produce of the cattle or of the trees although they remain in the charge of the other. Likewise, if a slave who has been lost is recognized by his master in the charge of another person, and the master of the slave notifies that person of the fact that the slave is his and has a witness to confirm his statement, he shall be entitled to whatever his slave may produce if he remains in the charge of the person aforesaid.

Article XLVII

If a man rents a field of another with the intention of cultivating it, but later fails to do so and returns it to the owner thereof, he shall be liable for the rent and shall pay the same at harvest time, as though he had cultivated the land and reaped the produce. Likewise, if a boat is hired, the hire thereof shall be paid to its owner, whether or not it has been used for the intended travel.

Article XLVIII

If a slave runs away and enters the house of a certain person, or if a person finds a runaway slave, the owner of which is known to him but to whom he fails to give notice of the fact, and the slave again runs away, he, the finder, shall be responsible for the slave to the owner thereof.

Article XLIX

If a married man leaves his home on a long journey and nothing is heard of him, his wife shall not have the right to marry another; but if she learns that he has died or that he has divorced her, she shall then wait four years, after which she shall observe the customary mourning for his death; then she may marry again. The judges shall be careful not to change this decree in order that their power and influence may not suffer.

Article L

If a boat is in danger of sinking, it shall be right and proper to throw its cargo overboard. But if a man throws away property without the knowledge of the owner thereof, and the boat does not sink, he shall replace the property. If a person tells another to throw his property overboard, promising to replace it, and the property is thrown overboard but the boat does not sink, he shall replace the property; but where there has been no promise to replace the property he shall not be held liable.

Second page of an original manuscript copy of the Luwaran   
Second page of an original manuscript copy of the Luwaran   

Article LI

Section 1. If a debtor dies, his debts shall be payable from his estate, his estate being regarded in the nature of a security.

Section 2. If a debtor dies and leaves no estate, his heirs shall not be liable for his debt. By heirs is here meant parents, children, brothers, sisters, grandchildren, or grandparents.

Section 3. If a debtor dies and leaves an estate to his heirs, the estate shall be expended in payment of his debts whether it is sufficient in amount or not.

Section 4. If the heirs divide their inheritance before they know of the existence of a claim for debt against the estate, they shall return their shares to pay the debt, whether the inheritance is sufficient or not; and if they have used their inheritance prior to the knowledge of the debt, they shall pay out of their own property an amount equal thereto in payment of the debt.

Article LII

If a man orders another to shoot at a deer, believing that he is ordering him to shoot at a deer, and the person shoots believing also that he is shooting at a deer, but hits a man, neither the shooter nor the man who has ordered him to shoot shall be liable to punishment, but shall pay only a light fine as blood money. Likewise, if a man orders another to shoot at a tree, believing that he is ordering him to shoot at a tree, and the person shoots, believing also that he is shooting at a tree, but hits a man, neither the shooter nor the man who has ordered him to shoot shall be liable to punishment, but shall pay only a light fine as blood money.

Article LIII

In case a person orders another person to climb up a tree and the climber falls from the tree, there shall be no liability to punishment, whether the person dies or not. A medium fine only shall be paid as blood money.

Article LIV

If a female slave in the possession of a certain person has a child which is recognized by another person as his own child and born of the slave during her stay in his possession, and the claim is denied by her present owner and there is a witness to the truth of the claim, the plaintiff shall confirm his testimony by oath. Failure to confirm this testimony by oath and the lack of conclusive evidence that the child is a free child, begotten by the plaintiff of the slave, shall render the claim null.

Article LV

If a man recognizes a slave whom he has liberated in the possession of another man who denies the claim, and there is a witness who bears out the claim of the plaintiff, the plaintiff shall confirm his statement by an oath, and, having taken an oath, may recover his slave and reliberate him. But his statement shall not be sustained if an oath is not taken.

Article LVI

Section 1. If two persons enter into partnership and later one of them asks the other to sell the property or stock and divide the proceeds, and the property is sold and its amount received, but the seller claims the whole amount as his, to which the other partner objects on the ground that it belongs to the partnership; or if the seller claims that it belongs to the partnership, and the other partner claims that it is his own, the statement of the person in possession of the property or its price shall be sustained if confirmed by oath; but otherwise it shall be rejected.

Section 2. If in the preceding case the seller divides the proceeds and gives his partner a part thereof and holds the remainder for himself, claiming that the amount of the proceeds has been divided, but the other partner refuses to accept the division on the ground that it has not occurred, the claim against the division by the complaining partner shall be sustained if confirmed by oath; otherwise it shall not be sustained.

Section 3. If one of the two partners in the preceding case buys and takes possession of the property of the partnership and then denies that it is the former property, claiming that it has been bought by some one else, to which the other partner objects as a false claim, the statement of the latter shall be sustained if confirmed by oath; otherwise the buyer’s statement shall be sustained.

Article LVII

Section 1. If a free man kills another free man, or a free woman kills another free woman, or a slave kills another slave, the slayer shall be punished.

Section 2. If a free man kills a slave, the free man shall not be put to death.

Section 3. If a slave or other servant kills a free person, he shall be put to death.

Article LVIII

The blood money for the life of a woman or of a hermaphrodite shall be half that of a man; so also shall the fines for wounding a woman be rated as half those for wounding a man.

Article LIX

If a free man divorces his wife three times, or a slave divorces his wife twice, it shall not be lawful for him, the man, to marry again before the divorced woman is married to another person.

Article LX

Section 1. If the husband of a pregnant free woman dies, or a free woman is divorced, she shall mourn four months and ten days.

Section 2. If a slave woman is divorced, she shall mourn two months and five days.

Section 3. If a pregnant free woman is divorced, she shall mourn until childbirth.

Article LXI

If a person throws the sweepings of a house or the parings of fruits on the road, and a person carrying certain articles and passing on the road steps on them and thereby slips and falls and loses his property, the person who threw the sweepings or the fruit parings on the road shall pay for the lost property. He shall also be responsible for any injury resulting from the fall.

Article LXII

If a person gives an imbecile or an insane person or a child poison to eat, and said child, insane person, or imbecile dies as a result thereof, he shall be punished.

Article LXIII

If a man gets drunk and fights or kills another, he shall be liable to punishment.

Article LXIV

If a child or an imbecile or an insane person kills another person, he shall not be liable to punishment, but shall pay blood money.

Article LXV

If a child under age is in a high place and is frightened by some person and as a result thereof falls and dies, the person who frightened him shall pay his blood money.

Article LXVI

If a person who is shooting or hunting startles a child who happens to be in some high place, and the child falls and dies as a result thereof, he shall pay a small fine as blood money.

Article LXVII

If a slave is wounded, the fine in compensation for his injury shall be the price of the slave in case of death, or an amount equal to the decrease in the value of the slave in case he does not die.

Article LXVIII

Section 1. If a slave is guilty of cutting another, he shall be liable for the fine thereby incurred; if his master does not pay the fine, he may sell the guilty slave and pay the fine from the amount received therefor.

Section 2. If the master of the guilty slave refuses to sell him, he shall compensate for the decreased value of the slave who has been cut.

Article LXIX

Section 1. If a plaintiff produces a witness, his statement shall be sustained. Section 2. If a plaintiff has not a witness, the defendant shall take an oath; but if the defendant refuses to take an oath, the plaintiff shall swear and his statement shall be sustained.

Article LXX

If the owner of a slave dies and his heirs claim the slave, and the slave objects on the ground that he had been liberated by his deceased master, the slave shall take an oath to that effect, which oath shall confirm his statement; but if an oath is not taken by the slave, the claim of the heirs shall be sustained.

Article LXXI

All property loaned shall be paid back in kind, but if that be impracticable, the value thereof shall be accepted.

Article LXXII

The will of a free person shall be legitimate whether he be a non-Mohammedan or a person of bad character; but the will of an insane person or an imbecile or a child or a slave shall not be legitimate.

Thrid page of an original manuscript copy of the Luwaran   
Third page of an original manuscript copy of the Luwaran   

Article LXXIII

If the legatee dies before the testator, the will shall be held invalid; but if the legatee dies after the death of the testator, the heirs of the legatee shall be entitled to his share under the will. [77]

Article LXXIV

If a person wills his estate to one of his heirs, the will shall be sustained if the other heirs consent to it; but if they do not consent, the will shall not be sustained.

Article LXXV

If a person recognizes his property in the possession of another, which property he has neither sold nor given away as charity or otherwise, it shall be lawful for him to take or recover his property, unless he is afraid of being killed. In case he is afraid, he shall present the matter to the datu and then to the judge.

Article LXXVI

The action of a guardian or agent shall be binding on the ward or the principal, respectively. The insane, imbeciles, or children shall never be guardians or agents.

Article LXXVII

If two persons collide unintentionally and one person is injured, the liability of the guilty person for the fine or compensation thereby incurred shall extend to his heirs. The fine shall be small.

Article LXXVIII

If in the preceding case the collision is intentional, the liability shall be the same, but the fine shall be equal to half the limit.

Article LXXIX

If children or imbeciles or insane persons collide, the same law shall govern as in the case of sui juris persons.

Article LXXX

Section 1. A son, the only child, shall inherit all of the estate of his father and mother.

Section 2. A daughter, the only child, shall inherit half the estate of her father and mother.

Section 3. Two or more sons, the only children, shall share the estate of their father and mother equally.

Section 4. In case one son and one daughter are the only children, the estate of the father and mother shall be divided into three equal parts, of which the son shall receive two parts and the daughter one part.

Section 5. In case of multiplicity of sons and daughters, the estate shall be so divided as to give each daughter half the share of one son. [78]

Article LXXXI

A husband shall inherit half the estate of his wife in event of her death and when she has neither a child nor a grandchild.

Article LXXXII

In the event of the death of a wife who has children or grandchildren, her husband shall inherit one-quarter of her estate only, and the other heirs shall inherit the remaining three-quarters.

Article LXXXIII

In the event of the death of a man who has no children or grandchildren, his wife shall inherit one-quarter of his estate only.

Article LXXXIV

In the event of the death of a man who has children or grandchildren, his wife shall inherit one-eighth of his estate only.

Article LXXXV

Section 1. A father or son or wife or husband can not be disinherited by other heirs.

Section 2. A son disinherits full brothers and sisters, and all other heirs.

Section 3. Full brothers and sisters disinherit more remote heirs.

Section 4. A grandfather, a father, and a grandson disinherit a brother or sister from the mother alone, or other heirs.

Section 5. A grandfather, brother, son, and uncle or aunt on the father’s side disinherit a full nephew or niece, or more remote heirs.

Section 6. A full nephew disinherits another nephew who is not from a full brother or sister.

Section 7. A nephew on the father's side disinherits a full cousin and more remote heirs.

Section 8. A full uncle or aunt disinherits an uncle or aunt on the father's side.

Section 9. A full cousin disinherits a cousin on the father’s side.

God’s knowledge surpasses our knowledge.

 

References

  1. Studies in Moro History, Law, and Religion, page 64-78, Najeeb M. Saleeby, Manila, Bureau of Public Printing. 1905, Gutenberg release date: January 3, 2013 (EBook #41770)


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