Today in Philippine History September 12, 1896, the 13 martyrs of Cavite were executed by Spanish authorities

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Monday September 12, 2011 ()

On September 12, 1896, 13 Filipinos, the "13 martyrs" of Cavite were executed by Spanish authorities at Plaza de Armas near Fort of San Felipe, Cavite City, for joining the Katipunan revolution.

With reports of impending plot against the government, the Spaniards reacted swiftly and harshly resulting in the mass execution of the "13 martyrs".

The 13 martyrs of Cavite The "13 martyrs", ages ranging from 31 to 64 years, were rounded up, jailed, and tortured and sentenced to die by firing squad to cow the people to submission. Ten of them were masons, including:

  1. Mariano Inocencio, 64, a rich proprietor;
  2. Jose Lallana, 54, a tailor, former Corporal in the Spanish Army and a Spanish Mason;
  3. Eugenio Cabezas, 41, a watchmaker and member of the Katipunan;
  4. Maximo Gregorio, 40, a clerk of the Cavite Arsenal;
  5. Hugo Perez, 40, a physician and member of the Katipunan;
  6. Severino Lapidario, 38, Chief Warden of the Provincial Jail and member of the Katipunan;
  7. Alfonso de Ocampo, 36, a Spanish mestizo and member of the Katipunan;
  8. Luis Aguado, 33, employee of the Cavite Arsenal;
  9. Victoriano Luciano, 32, a pharmacist and poet; and
  10. Feliciano Cabuco, 31, an employee of the Navy Hospital in Cavite.

The three non-masons were:

  1. Francisco Osorio, 36, a Chinese mestizo and contractor;
  2. Antonio de San Agustin, 35, a surgeon and businessman; and
  3. Agapito Concio, 33, a teacher, musician and painter.

However, the deaths of the 13 martyrs, along with many others in the provinces who joined the revolution, fueled the revolution leading to June 12, 1898, with General Emilio Aguinaldo's proclamation of Philippine Independence.

In memory of the 13 martyrs, in 1906, a monument was erected at the place where they were executed. Their families reinterred their remains at the foot of the monument.

The capital of Cavite was also renamed Trece Martires in their honor and its 13 villages were named for each of the martyrs.

Reference: Philippines News Agency


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